Sunday, October 11, 2020

The Noble Prize and History

Nobel Prizes are awarded in line with the wishes of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel. Alfred Bernhard Nobel also a chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833. In 1842 he went with his family to live in St. Petersburg. There he was given first class education by private teachers.

By the age of 17 Alfred Nobel was fluent in Swedish, Russian, French, English and German. His primary interests were in English literature and poetry as well as in chemistry and physics.

In 1867 Alfred Nobel invented dynamite. During his life he managed to earn a lot of money from this invention.

The Nobel Prize is awarded once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute. Nobel Prizes was established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine since 1901. The prizes are regarded as the most prestigious awards conferred for intellectual achievement in the world.

According to the will of Alfred Nobel, the prizes established by his will should be awarded in five categories: physiology or medicine, physics, chemistry, literature and peace. And it should reward to those who “shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind.

In the will he drafted in 1895, Nobel reiterated that five prizes would be awarded to the persons who shall have:
(a) made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics,
(b) made the most important chemical discovery or improvement;
(c) made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine;
(d) produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction; and
(e) done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.
The Noble Prize and History

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