Sunday, April 26, 2015

History of rocket science

In 1232, during the war of Kai-Keng, the Chinese repelled the Mongol invaders by a barrage of "arrows of flying fire." These fire-arrows were a simple form of a solid-propellant rocket. A tube, capped at one end, was filled with gunpowder. The other end was left open and the tube was attached to a long stick. When the powder was ignited, the rapid burning of the powder produced fire, smoke, and gas that escaped out the open end and produced a thrust.

Then, the Mongols produced rockets of their own and may have been responsible for the spread of rockets to Europe. The rocket seems to have arrived in Europe around 1241 A.D. Contemporary accounts describe rocket-like weapons being used by the Mongols against Magyar forces at the battle of Sejo which preceded their capture of Buda (now known as Budapest) Dec. 25, 1241.

According to history Mongols invaded Baghdad on February 15, 1258 also used the rocket like weapon.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Sir Isaac Newton laid the understanding of physical notion of rocket science on the 17th century. He organized his findings into scientific laws.

In 1720, Willem Gravesande, a Dutch professor, built model cars propelled by jets of stream.  

Rockets were used by the British Navy to bombard Fort McHenry in 1814, inspiring the National Anthem of the United States.

In 1898, a Siberian schoolteacher and scientist, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) provided the scientific basis for modern rocketry. He proposed the idea of space exploration. Tsiolkovsky suggested the use of liquid propellants for rockets in order to achieve greater range. Tsiolkovsky stated that the speed and range of a rocket were limited only by the exhaust velocity of escaping gases.

He contributed concept of multi-stage rockets and Rocket Momentum Equation. His work inspired many early rocket pioneers, and started the ball rolling toward turning rocketry into both a science and a practical engineering effort.

American scientist, Robert H. Goddard conducted experiments in rocket science in the early 20th century and became interested in a way of achieving higher altitudes.

Robert Goddard conducted theoretical and experimental research on rocket motors using a steel motor with a tapered nozzle and achieved greatly improved thrust and efficiency for the rockets of his times. Sputnik I was the first satellite successful entry in a race for space between the two superpower Russian and United States.

United States launched its first satellite Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958. In October of that year, the United States formally organized its space program by creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
History of rocket science 

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